|Preparation||Understanding of the foresight of scientific discipline, preparation of conception and methodology||Methodology|
|Questionnaire #1||Identification of major scientific areas, components, needs of society, possible impact||Technological areas, Social needs|
|Development of taxonomy of research topics||Identification of research topics of various directions of scientific research, creation of taxonomy||3 emerging research areas, 5 prospective and important research areas, 6 aspects, 66 topics|
|Questionnaire #2||Differentiation of research topics, classifications||4 classes of research topics, 4 groups of importance|
|Generalization, visualization||Preparation of results of foresight,||Scientific Landscape, position paper|
The Foresight consisted of five phases. The table above provides description of the phases. The First phase “Preparation” was devoted to the development of methodology of foresight. During the preparation phase the idea of foresight of a scientific discipline was developed, the main components and their interactions were identified. Also online tools for collection and processing opinions of participants were chosen and prepared.
The Second Phase “Questionnaire #1” was devoted to the development and implementation of the first survey. The main goal of this survey was the identification of the scientific, technological and social landscape related to the systems research discipline. Questionnaire #1 had three groups of questions. The first group of questions was aimed at the identification what vital needs society has that can be resolved by systems research and what impact on society, new and perspective research issues of systems research will be. The second group of questions was aimed at the identification of prospective technologies that could change the scientific agenda (or require special support from Systems Research) and new technology areas that can be inspired by the scientific research. The main goals of third group of questions were the identification of important scientific issues related to Systems Research, identification of a possible impact of research in systems on other scientific disciplines and vice versa.
To describe existing and future topics we developed taxonomy based on an idea of tradeoffs of aspects in different research areas. An example of research area could be “Cloud Systems” or “Embedded Systems” - different areas of application with own research practices. Under the term “aspect” we considered characteristics of systems like Performance or Energy Efficiency. These aspects can be considered as independent, for example in a form of development of a new architecture of an operating system that shows significant improvement of performance or energy efficiency, but also can be considered in a form of a tradeoff between performance and energy efficiency. These aspects are opposite by their nature, and that creates new issues for scientific discipline. Also, same aspects have different impact in different areas. We identified [tab:tax] five important research areas that are described by six orthogonal aspects, also we identified and described 66 research topics. In addition, we identified three emerging research areas. These areas cannot be described by the existing six aspects, and we think, that within the process of development of these emerging areas they will be described by another aspects.
The Fourth Phase “Questionnaire #2” was devoted to identification social significance of particular research topic. We classified all topics by four groups based on two pairs of opposite characteristics: “Internal”/“External” and “Push”/“Pull” orientations of research. “External” means that the research could have an impact on other scientific disciplines, technologies or society. “Internal” has an opposite meaning - that the research is devoted and will have an impact on systems research only. “Push” means curios or explore-driven research, aimed at creation of new directions, issues in scientific research. “Pull” means demand-driven research, aimed at satisfaction of needs and resolution of known research topics. Combined together these two pairs of opposite characteristics create four different types of research topics (Figure [fig:cart]). The first group (I) is devoted to research topics that could have an impact on society, technologies and sciences by creation of new directions of the systems research. The second group (II) is devoted to research topics that could have an impact on society but are driven by existing and known needs. The third group (III) is devoted to research topics that try to resolve existing issues of systems research. The fourth group (IV) is devoted to research topics that create new research directions, but could have an impact only on systems research.